The functional finishing of textiles is to satisfy certain special use requirements of textiles, and special finishing methods are given to the good use, safety and appearance of textile. Multi-functional textile finishing agent is a kind of functional finishing agent which is developed with the development of textile chemicals, biological medicine, polymer composite materials, photo chemical, thermodynamics, electricity, ecology and so on. Because the functional finishing of textile is to be aimed at the specific performance of the textile, strong purpose, excellent effect, and high added value of product.
1. The requirements of functional finishing
Good environmental protection, the production of functional textiles will not have an impact on the ecological environment. Harmful effluent, harmful gas and sewage discharge will directly result in soil and groundwater pollution, resulting in deterioration of natural ecological environment and biological population imbalance or elimination. These are not allowed by the world environmental protection organization and national governments. In addition to studying the recent ecological impact of various chemical additives, it is also important to study its long-term ecological impact and ensure its permanent safety. Therefore, in the process of functional textile finishing, biodegradable auxiliaries should be used to ensure environmental safety.
1). The safety of production operation
Special operations should be avoided in the production process to prevent the operation personnel from causing overt or recessive physical and psychological damage. It is not clear what effect the adjutant should be tracked at any time, regular check-up for the operators those who can be used in large quantities after obtaining reliable and harmless proof. The end product is non-toxic side effect, the functional textile once finished product can not have bad effect to environment and the life that use. Even if the residue is harmful, the residue must be reduced to a harmless range of life. It is not allowed to cause the risk of life, chronic poisoning, allergies, skin disorders, and other pathological changes, especially malignancies.
2). Functional endurance
Functional textile fabric should have different functional endurance capabilities depending on the life cycle they use. Usually, functional textile is mostly medium and long term goods, should be subjected to repeated washing and ironing in the process of use. Therefore, only those products that have good original function after a certain period of time will be accepted by the consumers and have good market potential.
2. The method of functional finishing:
1). Physical finishing
(1) Impregnation method which is suitable for water soluble or solvent and soluble multi-purpose finishing agent with solvents to form a homogeneous solution. and it permeates the gap between the fibers in the textile, and the surface of the fibers is attached to the surface of the fibers and attaches to the textile. This method is simple, easy production, low cost and fabric handle and style characteristics affected by solution is not big, but as a result of the combination of finishing agent and textile way is more physical adsorption, weak mutual inter-atomic forces, combined with the fastness is not high, easily affected by the outside world and the status of the use and loss of function.
(2) Padding method this method is suitable for the formation of viscous, but not very viscous, viscous solution in water or solvent. The textile immersed in the solution is arranged in a solution, and it is squeezed by the squeeze of the solution to the fabric's fiber clearance, and the excess solution is then baked and baked. The method is simple and easy to use. It can be realized with normal sizing equipment, and the cost is low, but the texture and style of the fabric are slightly affected by the solution. Due to the combination of textile finishing agent and still give priority to with the physical adsorption of interaction force is not strong, combined with the fastness is not too high, and its wear resistance, washing resistance, solvent resistance and weather resistance parameter values are not high.
(3) Coating method which applies to the finishing agent of viscous fluid or viscous semi-fluid. Apply the finishing agent to the textile, bake, and stick to the finished textile. In the baking process, the finishing agent and the textile fiber can be partially grafted together, or the finishing agent inter-polymerized, forming the membrane on the outer surface of the textile. This kind of finishing is simpler and easier to do, and the pollution is less, and it is applied to the organic coating. But notice the effect of the volatilization of organic matter. The combination fastness of this kind of finishing is high, the durability is good, the cost is low, the defect is that the style feeling of the textile will be affected by the finishing agent bigger.
2). Chemical finishing
Chemical finishing is the fiber of macromolecular monomer and has a certain function or chemical reaction of monomer for copolymerization, grafting, so that the fiber materials and functional materials together to form a new kind of functional materials. Because they rely on the inner binding force, they are very strong, not easily damaged, they have permanent use, and they can be used for many environmental conditions. But this method is highly technical, expensive and difficult to produce.
3). Biological ecological finishing
Biological ecological finishing is a new kind of finishing in recent years, and it is widely used to organize the textile by bioactive enzymes. This kind of finishing has a high security, small environmental impact, and the good characteristics of the finishing effect, so the development of the function is fast. Biological ecological finishing depends on the biological chemistry, although finishing effect is good, function is lasting, but production is difficult, high cost, and influence on textile handle style varies according to the type of enzyme. At present, the ecological biological finishing is still in development, and it needs to be perfected. Use a dip method, which can be bathed with dye. The results of the finishing show that it has a good anti-bacterial effect. Ecological indicators show that the general chemical and drug health safety rules are not taken orally and stored in flammable liquids.